What They Do: Mathematicians and statisticians analyze data and apply mathematical and statistical techniques to help solve problems.

Work Environment: Many mathematicians and statisticians work in the federal government and in private science and engineering research companies. They may work on teams with engineers, scientists, and other professionals.

How to Become One: Mathematicians and statisticians typically need at least a masterâ€™s degree in mathematics or statistics. However, some positions are available to those with a bachelorâ€™s degree.

Salary: The median annual wage for mathematicians is $108,100. The median annual wage for statisticians is $95,570.

Job Outlook: Overall employment of mathematicians and statisticians is projected to grow 31 percent over the next ten years, much faster than the average for all occupations.

Related Careers: Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of mathematicians and statisticians with similar occupations.

Mathematicians and statisticians analyze data and apply mathematical and statistical techniques to help solve real-world problems in business, engineering, healthcare, or other fields.

Mathematicians and statisticians typically do the following:

- Develop new mathematical rules, theories, and concepts in areas such as algebra and geometry
- Decide what data are needed to answer specific questions or problems
- Apply mathematical theories and techniques to solve practical problems in business, engineering, the sciences, and other fields
- Design surveys, experiments, or opinion polls to collect data
- Develop mathematical or statistical models to analyze data
- Interpret data and report conclusions drawn from their analyses
- Use data analysis to support and improve business decisions

Mathematicians and statisticians apply theories and techniques, such as mathematical or statistical modeling, to solve practical problems. Typically, they work with individuals in other occupations to solve these problems. For example, they may work with chemists, materials scientists, and chemical engineers to analyze the effectiveness of new drugs. Others may work with industrial designers to study the aerodynamic characteristics of new automobiles.

To work on these problems, mathematicians and statisticians must first collect data. Statisticians design surveys, questionnaires, experiments, and opinion polls to collect the data they need. Surveys may be mailed, conducted over the phone, collected online, or gathered through some other means.

Some surveys, such as the U.S. census, include data from nearly everyone. For most surveys and opinion polls, however, statisticians use a sampling method to collect data from some people in a particular group. Statisticians determine the type and size of the sample to be surveyed or polled.

After the data are collected, mathematicians and statisticians use specialized statistical software to analyze data. In their analyses, mathematicians and statisticians identify trends and relationships within the data. They also conduct tests to determine the data's validity and to account for high survey nonresponse rates or sampling error. Some may help create new software to analyze data more accurately and efficiently.

Mathematicians and statisticians present the findings from their analyses and discuss the data's limitations in order to prevent inaccurate conclusions from being drawn. They may present written reports, tables, charts, and graphs to other team members and to clients.

Mathematicians and statisticians work in many fields, such as education, marketing, psychology, sports, or any other field that requires the collection and analysis of data. In particular, government, healthcare, and research and development companies employ many statisticians.

** Government.** Mathematicians and statisticians working in government develop and analyze surveys that collect a variety of data, including unemployment rates, wages, and other estimates pertaining to jobs and workers. Others help to figure out the average level of pesticides in drinking water, the number of endangered species living in a particular area, or the number of people who have a certain disease.

** Healthcare. **Statisticians known as biostatisticians or biometricians work in pharmaceutical companies, public health agencies, or hospitals. They may design studies to test whether drugs successfully treat diseases or medical conditions. They may also help identify the sources of outbreaks of illnesses in humans and animals.

** Research and development.** Mathematicians and statisticians design experiments for product testing and development. For instance, they may help design experiments to see how car engines perform when exposed to extreme weather conditions. Some may analyze consumer data to help develop marketing strategies and prices for consumer goods.

** Colleges and universities.** Mathematicians and statisticians working in a postsecondary education institution may study theoretical or abstract concepts in mathematics or statistics. They identify, research, and resolve unexplained issues in mathematics and are concerned primarily with exploring new mathematical or statistical theories to increase knowledge and understanding about the field.

However, the mathematician occupation is a relatively small one, and many people with a degree in mathematics or who develop mathematical theories and models may not be formally known as mathematicians. Instead, they work in related fields and professions. In the computer systems design and related services industries, for example, they may be known as computer programmers or systems analysts. In finance, they may be known as
*quantitative analysts*. Other industries may refer to them as
*data scientists* or *data analysts*.

Computer and information research scientists, physicists and astronomers, economists, actuaries, operations research analysts, engineers, and many other occupations also use mathematics extensively.

Many people with a Ph.D. in mathematics, particularly theoretical mathematics, work as postsecondary teachers in education institutions. They usually have a mix of teaching and research responsibilities. Some may conduct individual research or collaborate with other professors or mathematicians. Collaborators may work together at the same institution or from different locations.

Mathematicians hold about 2,000 jobs. The largest employers of mathematicians are as follows:

Federal government | 62% |

Professional, scientific, and technical services | 13% |

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private | 13% |

Statisticians hold about 34,200 jobs. The largest employers of statisticians are as follows:

Federal government | 15% |

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences | 14% |

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private | 9% |

Healthcare and social assistance | 8% |

Insurance carriers and related activities | 6% |

Mathematicians and statisticians typically work in offices. They also may work on teams with engineers, scientists, and other professionals.

Most mathematicians and statisticians work full time. Deadlines and last-minute requests for data or analysis may require overtime. In addition, these workers may travel to attend seminars and conferences.

**Get the education you need:** Find schools for Mathematicians and Statisticians near you!

Mathematicians and statisticians typically need at least a master's degree in mathematics or statistics. However, some positions are available to those with a bachelor's degree.

In private industry, mathematicians typically need an advanced degree, either a master's degree or a doctorate. For jobs with the federal government, candidates need at least a bachelor's degree in mathematics or significant coursework in mathematics.

Most colleges and universities offer a bachelor's degree in mathematics. Courses usually include calculus, differential equations, and linear and abstract algebra. Many colleges and universities advise or require mathematics students to take courses in a related field, such as computer science, engineering, physics, or statistics. Because mathematicians often work with data analysis software, computer programming courses may be particularly beneficial for students.

Many universities offer master's and doctoral degrees in theoretical or applied mathematics. Many students who get a doctoral degree work as professors of mathematics in a college or university.

Statisticians typically need a master's degree but some entry-level positions may accept candidates with a bachelor's degree.

Most statisticians have degrees in mathematics, economics, computer science, or another quantitative field. A degree in statistics typically includes courses in linear algebra, calculus, experimental design, survey methodology, probability, and statistical theory.

Many colleges and universities advise statistics students to take courses in a related field, such as computer science, engineering, or physics. These courses can help prepare students to work in a variety of industries. Coursework in engineering or physical science, for example, may be useful for mathematicians or statisticians working in manufacturing on quality or productivity improvement. A background in biology, chemistry, or health sciences is useful for work testing pharmaceutical or agricultural products.

Because mathematicians and statisticians often work with data analysis software, computer programming courses may be particularly beneficial for students.

Students who are interested in becoming mathematicians or statisticians should take as many math courses as possible in high school.

** Analytical skills.** Mathematicians and statisticians use mathematical techniques and models to analyze large amounts of data. They must determine the appropriate software packages and understand computer programming languages to design and develop new techniques and models. They must also be precise and accurate in their analysis.

** Communication skills.** Mathematicians and statisticians must interact with, and propose solutions to, people who may not have extensive knowledge of mathematics.

** Math skills.** Mathematicians and statisticians use statistics, calculus, and linear algebra to develop their models and analyses.

** Problem-solving skills.** Mathematicians and statisticians must devise new solutions to problems encountered by scientists or engineers.

Entry Level Experienced

The median annual wage for mathematicians is $110,860. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $61,760, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $169,500.

The median annual wage for statisticians is $95,570. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $49,350, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $157,300.

The median annual wages for mathematicians in the top industries in which they work are as follows:

Professional, scientific, and technical services | $129,800 |

Federal government | $115,610 |

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private | $61,600 |

The median annual wages for statisticians in the top industries in which they work are as follows:

Research and development in the physical, engineering, and life sciences | $114,770 |

Federal government | $114,050 |

Insurance carriers and related activities | $83,820 |

Healthcare and social assistance | $79,060 |

Colleges, universities, and professional schools; state, local, and private | $77,750 |

Most mathematicians and statisticians work full time. Deadlines and last-minute requests for data or analysis may require overtime. In addition, these workers may travel to attend seminars and conferences.

Overall employment of mathematicians and statisticians is projected to grow 31 percent over the next ten years, much faster than the average for all occupations.

About 4,100 openings for mathematicians and statisticians are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Projected employment of mathematicians and statisticians varies by occupation. Employment growth for statisticians is expected to result from more widespread use of statistical analysis to inform business, healthcare, and policy decisions. The amount of digitally stored data will increase over the projections decade as people and companies continue to conduct business online and use social media, smartphones, and other mobile devices. As a result, businesses will increasingly need statisticians to analyze the large amount of information and data collected. Statistical analyses will help companies improve their business processes, design and develop new products, and advertise products to potential customers.

Occupational Title | Employment, 2021 | Projected Employment, 2031 | Change, 2021-31 | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Percent | Numeric | |||

Mathematicians and statisticians | 36,100 | 47,300 | 31 | 11,200 |

Mathematicians | 2,000 | 2,000 | 0 | 0 |

Statisticians | 34,200 | 45,300 | 33 | 11,200 |

For more information about mathematicians, including training, especially for doctoral-level employment, visit

For more information about statisticians, visit

American Statistical Association

For specific information on careers in applied mathematics, visit

Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics

For information on federal government requirements for mathematician positions, visit

A portion of the information on this page is used by permission of the U.S. Department of Labor.